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Sheikh al-Hokamaee, E.

E. Sheikh al-Hokamaee. La vision religieuse des Safavides, la conservation des archives pré-safavides et l’altération des documents

Compte-rendu réalisé par Zahir Bhalloo
Référence(s) :

E. Sheikh al-Hokamaee. « La vision religieuse des Safavides, la conservation des archives pré-safavides et l’altération des documents », in : Anne Regourd, éd., Documents et histoire: Islam, VIIe-XVIe siècle, Actes des premières Journées d’étude internationales, École pratique des hautes études, IVe section, musée du Louvre, département des Arts de l’Islam. Paris, 16 et 17 mai 2008. Genève, Droz, 2013, p. 137-154.

Texte intégral

1After an introduction to the role of Islamic shrines and their administrators in preserving legal and administrative documents (p. 137-140), the author examines the ‘shiʻitizationʼ (p. 140-154), from the Safavid period onwards, of four endowment deeds (dated 715/1315, 825/1422, 860/1456 and 899/1485) and a secular decree (803/1401) from the south-west Iranian province of Fārs. The four endowment deeds are related to the sanctuary (boqʻe) of the Sunnī Šāfeʻī mystic Šayḫ Amīn-al-Dīn Baleyānī (d. 745/1344-45) in Kāzerūn. The secular decree concerns the administration of the shrine (āstāne) of the Sunnī Šāfeʻī mystic and jurist Šāh Bābā Valī (d. 730/1329-30) in Behbahān.

2The author demonstrates how scribes added pious Šīʻī formulas such as salutations to ʻAlī and the Šīʻī emāms in the invocation (ḫoṭbe) section of copies of these documents. They modified honorifics, replacing in particular šayḫ with sayyed. They added expressions giving the impression that the populations and clergy of the places mentioned were Imāmī Šīʻī-s when the documents were produced not Sunnī Šāfeʻī-s. They added Šīʻī ritual formulas such as ʻAlī walī Allāh. Finally, they changed names, including those of witnesses, to make them more explicitly Šīʻī: ʻAbd al-Ḥamīd for example becomes ʻAbd al-Ḥusayn.

3While the first, third and fourth endowment deed and the secular decree mention they are later transcripts, the second endowment deed, dated 825/1422, contains no indication that it is a transcript or a rewrite, which, according to the author, makes it a striking example of falsification.

4It is important to distinguish here between an original document (aṣl), its transcript or copy (farʻ; savād) and a rewrite. On rewrites, see Reḍāʼī’s study of rewrite clauses in thirty-four 19th-century Qajar era endowment deeds from the province of Kermān (O. Reḍāʼī, « Tajdīd-e vaqf-nāme bā negāhī be vaqf-nāme-hā-ye ostān-e Kermān ». Mīrāṯ-e Jāvīdān, 37, 1381 h.š./2002, p. 131-135). Kondo has studied, based on surviving transcripts, the production in the context of litigation of two rewrites of an endowment deed (1188/1774) from Tehran (N. Kondo, « The Waqf of Ustad ʻAbbas: Rewrites of the deeds in Qajar Tehran », in : N. Kondo, ed., Persian Documents: Social history of Iran and Turan in the fifteenth-ninteenth centuries. London, Routledge, 2003, p. 106-128).

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Référence électronique

Zahir Bhalloo. Sheikh al-Hokamaee, E., « E. Sheikh al-Hokamaee. La vision religieuse des Safavides, la conservation des archives pré-safavides et l’altération des documents », Abstracta Iranica [En ligne], Volume 34-35-36 | 2016, document 2, mis en ligne le 30 décembre 2016, consulté le 29 mai 2017. URL : http://abstractairanica.revues.org/41841

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